Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Concepts of Negative and Positive Peace

Firstly, it is important to provide some sort of outline of what the term peace itself means. During my research I came across the notes of the Irenees’ Peace workshop held in South Africa in May 2007. According to these documents Peace does not mean the total absence of any conflict. It means the absence of violence in all forms and the unfolding of conflict in a constructive way. Peace therefore exists where people are interacting non-violently and are managing their conflict positively – with respectful attention to the legitimate needs and interest of all concerned. In terms of explaining the difference of negative and Positive peace this definition seemed the most appropriate. Johan Galtung, who had been often referred to as the father of peace studies distinguishes between ‘negative peace’ and ‘positive peace’. Before I elaborate on these two concepts, Galtung grew up during World War II in German-occupied Norway, where his father arrested was by the Nazis. By 1951 he was already a committed peace mediator, and elected to do 18 months of social service in place of his obligatory military service. Galtung eventually insisted that his social service should be spent in activities promoting peace, which lead to the Norwegian authorities imprisoning him for 6 months. Galtung's theoretical work proposes that there are four ways in which conflict can emerge: conflicts within a person or between persons; conflicts between races, sexes, generations, or classes; conflicts between states; and conflicts between civilizations or multi-state regions. Peace, according to Galtung, is not just the absence of war. Because two nations are not at war does not mean they are in peace. Negative peace refers to the absence of violence. When, for example, a ceasefire is enacted, a negative peace will ensue. It is negative because something undesirable stopped happening (e. g. the violence stopped, the oppression ended). The Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States is the classic example, but look also to modern examples of negative peace between North and South Korea or Israel and Syria. Therefore, the mere absence of physical violence or war is a negative peace because the conditions that inevitably lead to violence persist. Positive peace refers to the absence of indirect and structural violence and includes a state of collaboration and support between states, nations, or members of a society. It is closely tied to positive content such as restoration of relationships, the creation of social systems that serve the needs of the whole population and the constructive resolution of conflict. Ironically I was not able to find examples of any situations which would constitute an environment of positive peace. What I did come across was Galtung’s insistence that peace studies shouldn’t seek simply to reduce or end violence but rather to understand the conditions that lead to violence along with the conditions that manifest peace. According to Galtung peace and violence need to be examined at all human levels if a state of positive peace is ever to be reached therefore instances of something such as inter-gender violence is equally as important as inter-state violence. It isinteresting that in the UN charter, peace is not thoroughly defined. Instead, it is referred to as a negative definition of peace (the lack of war) and not a positive definition (the lack of war plus just institutions, structural equality, etc). In other words, officially the UN as an organization works with a definition of peace as the lack of interstate war.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Impact Of International Trade On The Development...

The importance of international trade in the world has been widely studied and also examines the role of international trade in the various issues. Mainly my paper focused on the relationship between Economic Development and international trade, disadvantages of international trade also discussed. International trade is an activity of strategies importance in the development process of a developing economy. International specialization means that different countries of the world specialize in producing different goods. Trade policy formulation and implementation covering issues such as tariffs, incentives, quotas, taxes, customs and administration, subsidies, rules of origin, public procurement regimes, aid and investment, export promotion, trade facilitation and diversification. The role of foreign trade in achieving a quicker pace of economic development is thus well recognized. Hence, planning of foreign trade cannot be divorced from the strategy of overall development. The disadv antage of international trade is that the welfare of the people in nations that produce goods and services is sometimes ignored for the sake of profits. In conclusion it can be said that, international trade leads to economic growth provided the policy measures and economic infrastructure are accommodative enough to cope with the changes in social and financial scenario that result from it. Keywords: International Trade, Economic Development, Disadvantages, Economic Growth. Thank you for givingShow MoreRelatedGlobalization and Its Meaning Broadly Speaking, the Term ‘Globalization’ Means Integration of Economies and Societies Through Cross Country Flows of Information, Ideas, Technologies, Goods, Services, Capital,1074 Words   |  5 Pagesintegration of economies and societies through cross country flows of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. Cross border integration can have several dimensions – cultural, social, political and economic. In fact, some people fear cultural and social integration even more than economic integration. The fear of â€Å"cultural hegemony† haunts many. Limiting ourselves to economic integration, one can see this happen through the three channels of (a) trade in goodsRead MoreRelationship Between International Trade And Marketing914 Words   |  4 Pagesoverview of the relationship between international trade and marketing. It will first present a h istorical background about import and exports, the trade agreements and their impact. Perhaps before, marketing wasn’t considered an important branch of trade but how important is marketing for the new companies that want to go global and enter on international trade? The paper will study the different elements of marketing that comes to life in the trade process and how important it really is for theRead MorePositive And Negative Outcomes Of Economic Globalization1635 Words   |  7 Pagesreview the literature on the positive and negative outcomes of economic globalization, and the impact on developed and developing nations. The findings indicate a strong trend in the belief that developed countries dominate in the world of international trade, as there resources ensure a competitive advantage over poorer undeveloped nations. In addition, it can be concluded that the great benefits of free trade, defined broadly as â€Å"free movement of goods, services, and capital across national boundariesRead MoreImpact Of Globalisation On The Way The Business Operate854 Words   |  4 Pagesgoing to define the meaning of Globalisation and assess the impact of globalisation on the way the business operate. Globalisation refers to the process of interaction and integration among the people, companies as well as governments of countries around the world, particularly in terms of trade, investment and technology. The process of globalisation, has profound impacts on the environment, culture, political systems, economic developments, prosperity and human physical well-being in the societiesRead MoreEssay Global Integration1203 Words   |  5 Pagesnational boundaries.† (IMF World Bank) Globalisation possibly the most important force at work at this time in history describes the process of increase integration and interdependence between national economies. It depicts the breaking down of national boundaries leading to the establishment of a single world market. This inevitable process of globalisation has and will continue to be accelerated by the electronic revolution. Advancement in telecommunications and informationRead MoreGlobalization Has Increased The Vulnerability Of Developing Countries1406 Words   |  6 Pageswitnessed an inevitable process of globalisation all over the world. In a single, integrated world market, globalisation refers to a broader and deeper growth of international trade, culture, finance and technology. Globalisation and developing countries: (248) Through trade, investment and capital flows, globalisation exerts a profound influence on the whole world, especially the countries of the South. Globalisation can accelerate economic growth and boost international cooperation. It providesRead MorePro Globalist vs Anti Globalist1341 Words   |  6 Pagesproper utilization. Globalization has been a historical process. This process was interrupted during the world war period. During the Pre-World War I period of 1870 to 1914, there was rapid integration of the economies in terms of trade flows, movement of capital and migration of people. The growth of globalization was mainly led by the technological forces in the fields of transport and communication. There were fewer barriers to flow of trade and people across the geographical boundaries. IndeedRead MoreCompare and Contrast the Current Era of Globalization with the First Age of Globalization (1850s-1920s). What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization in Its Current Context?1720 Words   |  7 Pagesanalysis the merits and demerits of globalization in its current context. John and Kenneth (2012, p. 28) find that the concept of globalization means the trend toward greater economic, cultural, political, and technological interdependence. With the development of the globalization , there is absolutely no reason for us to believe that a brighter future for the world is an impossibility. I’m going to solve the problem which is about the difference between the first and second globalization eras. From myRead MoreExport And Demand Of Goods1680 Words   |  7 Pageswith each other. Governments who use tariffs to protect the local economy and national benefits play an important role in trading until now. It is a useful tool for governments to negotiate with other countries on diplomacy. However, tariffs become barriers to globalisation and it can have negative effect on domestic economy and industries. Today, with the globalisation, each country may still consider to protect their local economy first instead of removing tariffs from imported products. InterestinglyRead MoreThe World Trade Organization ( Wto ) Essay1508 Words   |  7 Pageseconomic, financial, trade, and communications integration.† ( Globalisation enables vas t growth within international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and standard of living (measured by Human development Index). Globalisation in relation to Indonesia has greatly expanded the country’s international relationships, improved standard of living for the nation’s population and improved economic growth through assistance from strategies implemented to aid development. These strategies

Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Blue Ringed Octopus is one of the most beautiful and...

The Blue Ringed Octopus is one of the most beautiful and intelligent creatures. It is Genus: Hapalochlaena and Species Hapalochlaena lunulata. In studying this animal, they have an amazing design, habitat, and diverse anatomy. Considering the Blue Ring Octopus, it is a very diverse and interesting animal. Although people have little knowledge of the Blue Ringed Octopus, it is one of the most interesting animals in the world. Of the many things that relate to its ecosystem, some main points would be: the food chain concerning the Blue Ringed Octopus, the climate where its habitat is located, the worldwide population and certain habitat populations of this species, and what impact the human population has on this species. In†¦show more content†¦The second objective to evaluate is the BROs unique food chain. The BROs only enemy is the Moray Eel. Its amazing hiding skills and wits secure its safety. The Moray however uses different situations to its advantage. One of which is when it is safeguarding the eggs. The BRO will not leave the nest and is therefore open for attacks. The Moray shows patience and continually harasses the BRO until death. The BRO is close to the bottom of the food chain. He eats crab, shrimp, hermit crab and various small fish. It attacks it opponent from behind and covers it with its eight arms to prevent escape. With its beak it pokes a hole into the victims body injecting toxin. It then tears chunks away and lets its body digest it. The third objective to evaluate is the human impact on the Blue Ringed Octopus. Currently they are not in any danger from humans because they do not provide anything that a normal human would desire. Aquarium of Pacific says, Blue-ringed octopuses are not listed on the IUCN Red List nor are they protected. The only impact on them would be people sometimes taking them from the wild or buying them for pets. Since their venomous reputation, humans have been known in certain circumstances to kill them out of fear. This is a rare incident because it uses hiding so people hardly see it in the wild. Luckily, we do not come into contact with them often. A detrimental blow to the population is loss of reef habitat. As their

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Failure of the Constitution to Meet the Needs of a...

The Failure of the Constitution to Meet the Needs of a Rapidly Changing Society When the Constitution was written by the Founding Fathers back in 1787, they intentionally made it so that it could survive over time. They made it flexable so because they envisaged that there were problems that they could not forsee in the future, these are things such as the Depression of the late twenties and early thirties. The Framers intended for the amendment process to be the main way of updating the constitution and through time this has been evident. An important part of a democratic government is the accountability of those in power, in recent times we have seen the system in America fail, in part†¦show more content†¦This shows that there is an essential part of the democratic process missing due to flaws in the constitution. When the constitution was first written in 1787 there was a strong possibility of war, so when the founding fathers drew up the constitution they added in an article which said that all people have the right to bear arms. This article has been problematic ever since. Within the last decade there have been many high profile shootings in schools such as Columbine, this has led to a stronger fight against the gun laws. There are those such as the National Rifle Association who say that that right can not be taken away from them as it is one of their constitution rights but there is a problem with that as within the preamble there is the mention of insuring domestic tranquillity, can this be done when there are children who can gain easy access to guns, there are also the problems with the number of deaths due to gun crimes, the right to life is also mentioned in the constitution. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

Friendship Free Essays

Jarina, Jeremiah 4. 1. 2013 English 0310 Professor Renfro Importance of Friendship Friendship is an important aspect in everyone’s life. We will write a custom essay sample on Friendship or any similar topic only for you Order Now To some people it may be trivial and not essential in life but to me it is because of friends I am the person I am today. My friends helped me mold my personality and changed my habits for the better. Some friends may be fake towards me and some may be truly honest and enlightening. It’s very rare to find someone who knows it all and someone would understand. A friend who knows my flaws and accepts them is someone everyone should have in life. Friends are important sources of companionship and recreation, to share advice and value their time; they serve as trusted confidants and critics, act as loyal allies and provide stability in times of need. There are three main aspects that define what the meaning of friendship is. True friendship should have trust, understanding and loyalty. To know the characteristics between these words and its counterparts. A friend is not only someone to enjoy spending time with but also someone with who to share trust the most important aspect in friendship. Acquaintances and socialize with are often mistaken for friends because of an established sense of trust, but a true friendship with a best friend is based on an unwavering bond of trust. To have trust is to be able to rely in the capability and strength of someone else. There are few friends I can confidently say I can completely trust. My best friends who I trust in will do their utmost for me, whenever I need help with something or when I need advice. There are also people who have friends who are untrustworthy, friends who they cannot rely on times of need with something or ask for advice. People who do not believe and rely on a friend that would be there on times of need then the relationship that they have is not true friendship. To know who are the trusted and the untrustworthy will benefit me in life to a long-run. The characteristics between trust and untrustworthy is whether or not I can rely on a friend that has a capability and strength to do something with. To build trust between each other will only strengthen the bond of friendship. To understand one another completely is not easy to do but it is one of the characteristics that is important in a friend. Understanding in a friendship allows sympathy and compassion towards each other in situations. While understanding and accepting are completely diverse words, it is with understanding I can learn to accept the flaws, attitude and personality of the other person. With understanding people can share each other’s secrets and share advice which they should have. My opinion and interpretation of friends will determine how I look at them and treat them. Then there is misunderstanding between friends that also happens. If there is no understanding there will be no acceptance of each other’s personality and there will be a lot of disagreements, this will only make things harder as friends. Friends who understand each other’s feelings and emotions will last long through time. As long as there is understanding amongst friends it will be the glue that keeps the friendship intact. Having loyal friends can be a rewarding experience but there is a separation between having loyalty and disloyalty among friends. The meaning of a loyal friend is to be cooperative and faithful. It is a feeling of devotion and affection between friends that defines what loyalty means. People usually are mistaken of what a loyal friend is. It takes time and maturity for an individual to notice the signs of a loyal friend. Having loyalty creates faith in a friendship. A loyal friend will always be there in times of needs. On the other hand, a disloyal friend won’t be there to guide and help me throughout of my life. Knowing which friends are loyal and disloyal while watching out for hints and signs will help people to avoid potential times of distress. On my opinion, loyalty in its essence makes the trust and faith stronger that my best friends will be there for me. Finding a friendship that has all these aspects and characteristics is hard to come by. With these aspects I learn to accept their past, present and support their future. The true meaning of friendship is to know how to gain trust in a friend and knowing that they will be there for me in any situation in life. To understand each other’s feelings, personality and flaws while also accepting everything that they are. With strong friendship it helps me to have faith that they will not deceive me and always be loyal to me. How to cite Friendship, Papers Friendship Free Essays Imagine, for a moment, that you are a new child, in an unfamiliar place, full of invisible faces that stare at you as you walk past them. Your face buried in a map so that you can find your way through your new environment and you continuously bump into strangers who do not offer a supporting hand to guide you on your way. You are lost, and you do not know what to do. We will write a custom essay sample on Friendship or any similar topic only for you Order Now Suddenly, out of nowhere, a hand comes right in front of your path, grasping yours, and leading the way to safety and happiness. It is your first friend. Friendship is the greatest gift you can give someone to ensure mental, emotional, and social aspects for not only your own, but someone else’s life in the process. Everyone needs one good, true friend to stay mentally healthy. Having been proven by scientific experiments studied by Harvard Medical students, if a true friend is available to you, you can relinquish your thoughts and emotions to in order to relieve stress from your brain. Scientists agree that stress releases chemicals changes throughout your brain, and that these changes could influence your health. With a friend there for you, you are able to prevent stress from depleting your energy to even decreasing the stress that can build up cancer cells. Knowing such a thing, can you not see that your friend is saving your life over and over again? How nice is that? Friends are essential to your life. Everyone needs one good, true friend to stay emotionally healthy. Especially for children, having a friend along for the long run is not only nutritious to your emotional state, but as well as for your physical state as well. Common knowledge shows that without the required love or mutual feeling of friendship towards a human being cause’s complications when it comes to probing further in intellectual discoveries or inhibits one from gaining any social connections. Having a friend, or even better, multiple friends, can improve your emotional state in vast like ways, such as increasing social interactions after gaining self-confidence in the process. Without friends, you’re mental status is also affected due to stress levels that build up after being solitary for long periods of time, or perhaps from rejection, that it can lead to depression or even suicide. Knowing such a thing, can you not see that your friend is saving your life over and over again? Friends are essential to your life. In a personal view, being in the world without friends can be a very scary place. Friends can get you places, help you meet new faces, and make your life brighter than the sun. Friends are there for you when your life is down, if you have had a bad break-up, or if you have lost someone you love. They comfort you when you think you have got nothing else. A friend can be as close as a sibling, or as distant as your worst enemy, but in the end, you are not alone, and that makes all the difference when it comes to your mental, and emotional, state. Many of people believe that not everyone is socially inclined by birth or that said person is anti-social by their own means. However, a human being can not possible are, as proven in the statistics above, against human relation and contact without having prior past issues, such as child abuse, or depression. Friends will always be essential to you. In conclusion, Friendship is the greatest gift you can give someone to ensure mental, emotional, and social aspects for not only your own, but someone else’s life in the process. Friends relieve common stresses from a person that can leave them much healthier, mentally, and they can become a target for affections, or for any other positive emotion, leaving you socially enabled to lead your life. Socially connected to friends can lead to more friends, opening more opportunities that go up to business partners, to working together on a school paper. Friends can save your life repeatedly over and over again, isn’t that nice? You need friends, because— Friends are essential to your life. How to cite Friendship, Papers Friendship Free Essays Friendship is the divine feeling or relationship between friends. Friendships developed ultimately and required to be maintained with care. Men can’t live without friend and real friendship could be a great support for one’s life. We will write a custom essay sample on Friendship or any similar topic only for you Order Now Friendship is simply a divine relationship based on feelings and understanding. It’s not ordinary social or official affair between people but a divine feelings and care based on mutual trust, affection and support. A true friendship is developed ultimately; sometimes relationship could be established for earthly benefits but that is not really considered friendship. A real friendship does not aim any worldly interests rather spiritual and based on share and care between friends. A relationship required to be reciprocal to turn into friendship. That is friendship between two people or among several people, only develops when they all loves, understands and trust one another equally. Successful friendship only established provided taste, feeling and sentiments of friends are same or common. A friendly relationship between people with strictly different outlook and view is almost impossible. A friendship turns stronger with care and maintenance. In the same way disrespect towards it fade and destroy it away. Friends must be sincere and loyal towards one another. One should not show vanity and power over his/her friends. Friends must bare a sense of equity in mind. Friendship with disparity doesn’t last very long. Real friend be always with his/her friend in well and in owes. In order to maintain friendship, it must be valued and handled delicately because treatment towards friendship determines a friend is real friend or fair weathered. All people seems friendly are not friend. Many pretend to be friend and terminate friendship as soon as their interests are fulfilled. We may have thousands of fair-weathered friends in prosperity but real friends are those who stand by us in our trouble. It’s very painful when friends proved traitor so in choice of friends we must be cautious. A good friend supports us always and led us in the right way. A good friend encourages us for positive and forbid us form wrong deeds. A real good friend is an invaluable treasure. Benefits and necessity of friendship is innumerable. Human being needs companion to live. And friends are one of the best companion because supports us, care us and bless us an opportunity to share our thoughts freely. As friendship doesn’t aim any worldly things, serious dispute between friends are rare or mostly trifle. In a word, friendship is blessed with countless gifts. Friendship is undoubtedly a heavenly thing. Life is colourless and slow without a friend. Though real friends are not easy to find, a real friendship with a good person is a precious gift that could be great supports for lifetime.. How to cite Friendship, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Greenhouse Essay Example For Students

Greenhouse Essay The Greenhouse EffectThe greenhouse effect is an increase in the atmospheric temperature causedby increasing amounts of greenhouse gases. These gases act as a heat blanketinsulating the Earths surface absorbing and trapping heat radiation which normallyescapes from the earth. They include carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane,nitrous oxide, CFCs, and other halocarbons. The earths atmosphere goes through two processes constantly. Global coolingis the first process. This process uses the clouds which cover 60% of the earthssurface to reflect 30% of the solar radiation. It also uses a sulfate haze, whichis formed by sulfur dioxide from industrial sources that enter the atmosphere andreact with compounds to form a high-level aerosol. These cool the atmosphere byblocking us from direct contact with the sun. The reflection of the sunlight isreferred to as planetary albedo and contributes to the overall cooling. The second is the warming process. This is when light energy comes throughthe atmosphere and is absorbed by Earth and transformed to heat energy at theplanets surface. The infrared heat energy then radiates upward into space. Therethe greenhouse gases found naturally in the troposphere absorb some of the infraredradiation. The gases insulate the Earth, but do eventually allow the heat toescape. Without these greenhouse gases the earth would be would 33 C colder. Global temperature is a balance of the effects of the factors leading toglobal cooling, and warming. Unfortunately, increased emissions of greenhousegases increase the warming process. For example, every kilogram of fossil fuelsburned equals 3 kilograms of carbon dioxide ( the mass triples because each carbonatom in fuel bond to two oxygen atoms, in the course of burning, and forms C02. )6 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon are burned each year adding 18 billion tonsof C02 to the atmosphere. This has increase the carbon dioxide concentrationsby 25% and has cause temperatures to increase more than 0.7 C over the last hundredyears. We hope that the forests will act as a sink for carbon dioxide but insteadthey are a net source. This is because the forests are being cut and burned adding1 to 2 billion tons annually to the 6 billion tons of carbon already from industrialprocesses. Fortunately, the top 300 meters of oceans absorb most of the carbondioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels. Other factors are known to increase the greenhouse effect. These factorare water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs and other halocarbons. Watervapor is also a major factor in what has been called the supergreenhouse effectin the tropical Pacific ocean. Water vapor traps energy that has been radiatedback to the atmosphere. The high concentration of H2O vapor contributessignificantly to the heating of the ocean surface and lower atmosphere in thetropical Pacific. Methane (CH4) is a product of microbial fermentative reactions and is alsoemitted from coal mines, gas pipelines, and oil wells. Methane is graduallydestroyed, but it is added to the atmosphere faster than it can be broken down. Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be found in biomass burning, chemical fertilizers,and fossil fuel burning. Nitrous oxide is more dangerous than some of the othersbecause of its long residence time of 170 years. CFCs and other halocarbons are found in refrigerants, solvents, and fireretardants. Halocarbons have a greater capacity, 10 000 times, for absorbinginfrared radiation, which is about 60% more, than CO2. Although there is increasein the application of some of these gases, they will decrease in importance inthe future leaving carbon dioxide as the primary dilemma. .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 , .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .postImageUrl , .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 , .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:hover , .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:visited , .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:active { border:0!important; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:active , .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0 .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1288133d4ed2f10fb7e8b616cbc2d6a0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Freedom of Religion and Freedom of Expression: Tinker V. Des Moines EssayIn 1981, James Hansen of NASA invented a model with an ability to trackknown temperature changes and link them to past and future carbon dioxide levelsas well as global temperature changes. The model suggested the combination ofCO2 and volcanic emissions was responsible for most of the observed changes intemperature during the 1980s. A trend of warming of more than 0.7 C coincideswith an increase of 25% in carbon dioxide. Two major impacts of greenhouse effect are regional climatic changes anda rise in sea levels. A climactic change will lead to variations in temperature. Scientists expect more precipitation which may prove to be disastrous for NorthAmerica by flooding rivers and lakes. A rise in the sea levels is anticipated because of an increase in thermalexpansion and the melting of ice caps and ice fields. Like extensive rainfalls,a rise in the ocean will flood lakes and rivers covering land and may someday burycontinents. In order to control the effects of global warming we must first admit thatits occurring, then take steps to end it. We must stop burning the trees andnot replacing them. Most importantly, we must stop polluting the air. Science Essays